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How Would CRISP Help Patients of Chronic Rhinosinusitis ?

How Would CRISP Help Patients of Chronic Rhinosinusitis ?

Recently, Geisinger Health System, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Northwestern Medicine® Sinus and Allergy Centre, and the University of Chicago formed Chronic Rhinosinusitis Integrative Studies Program (CRISP) in the United States of America. The collective program would conduct research studies to understand the disease and develop effective methods of the treatment, benefiting the patients. CRISP received the program project grant (P01) to study the disease that is common in America but current knowledge of which is still rudimentary. The program would estimate remission, prevalence, and incidence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) based on studies involving samples from general population representing the complete CRS spectrum.

Goals of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Integrative Studies Program

  • To understand genetic polymorphism associated with severity and susceptibility of CRS
  • To find costs and characteristics of the disease
  • To identify the factors exacerbating stubborn CRS
  • How do immunological factors affect CRS?
  • To study environmental risks of the disorder

Composition of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Integrative Studies Program

CRISP consists of five groups of collaborative studies and research work:
Core A focuses on administration.
Core B, Clinical, Laboratory, and Data Management Core
CRS Epidemiology Project: The Geisinger Health Systems (G.H.S.) would use new approaches to appraise epidemiology of the disease in more than 300,000 primary care patients in Pennsylvania.
CRS Immunology and Exacerbation Mechanism Project would collaborate with the epidemiology project at Northwestern University (1) to study the pathogens exacerbating the disease and (2) to define scope of autoimmunity in severity of the disease. The immunology project would also assess the role of autoimmunity and B lineage cells in the CRS etiology.
CRS Genetics Project: The University of Chicago would conduct research studies (1) to find genes associated with the disease and (2) to understand relationship between the genetics and severity and various states of the disorder. The university would use the epidemiology project controls and samples collected from 2,000 patients to understand the genetics.
The epidemiology and immunology projects would develop a new “systems genetics discovery platform” that would be used for identifying gene candidates.

Benefits of CRISP

The resultant improved fundamental knowledge about sub-phenotypes of CRS would help researchers in identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms and genetic susceptibilities causing and exacerbating the symptoms of the disease. The understanding would facilitate development of therapies that are more effective than the existing ones.


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The Source of Modern Antibiotics

Thirteen Facts about Penicillium, the Source of Modern Antibiotics

The world antibiotic consists of two Greek words “anti” and “bios” that mean “against” and “life” respectively. Antibiotics are the natural or artificial substances that can check or destroy the growth of harmful bacteria and thereby help in treating bacteria caused infections. Penicillin is probably the oldest and the most popular source of antibiotics. But do you know?

  1. Alexander Fleming, a bacteriologist from Scotland, observed and reported merits of penicillin in 1928. He reported that Staphylococcus aureus died when came in contact of Penicillium notatum (P. chrysogenum), a green colour mould. This observation is one of the greatest feats of scientific community of the twentieth century.
  2. A decade later Ernst Chain (British), Howard Florey (Australia), and Norman Heatley worked on the observations made by Fleming. These scientists grew, extracted, and purified penicillin to use as a drug.
  3. The scientists faced three major problems while experimenting with penicillin: poor stability of penicillin at high and low pH levels, small level of production, and its fondness for surface culture.
  4. The city of Peoria in Illinois (U.S.A.) was the first place where the Northern Regional Research Laboratory (N.R.R.L.) produced penicillin at large scale.
  5. For penicillin production, locally available substances were used in both countries England and America. Yeast was used in England, whereas corn steep liquor solution was used in the U.S.A. The liquor solution was more effective. The extract from penicillin moulds grown in the solution was successfully used in treating the World War II soldiers.
  6. The first penicillin-based injectable antibiotic for medicinal use was introduced in 1941.
  7. In 1945, Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, and Howard Walter Florey won Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering penicillin.
  8. Penicillium is a genus consisting of green or blue mould fungi found in asexual forms. The genus grows on fabrics, foodstuff, and leather.
  9. Penicillium is used for making cheeses, organic acid, and antibiotics. Penicillium is widely found in soil.
  10. Penicillin can be divided into two groups: natural and semi-synthetic. The natural penicillin forms during fermentation of the mould. The semi-synthetic penicillin features artificially modified six-aminopenicillanic acid.
  11. Since an antibiotic can be modified, a variety of penicillin is generated for different medicinal uses.
  12. The only natural penicillin that is still available in medical laboratories is Penicillin G. However, poor acid-stability of the penicillin limits its therapeutic use.
  13. The fungi’s conidiophores resemble a paintbrush. Therefore, the Latin word “penicillus,” which means paintbrush, is used to describe the fungi.


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Thirteen Facts about Penicillium

Thirteen Facts about Penicillium, the Source of Modern Antibiotics

The world antibiotic consists of two Greek words “anti” and “bios” that mean “against” and “life” respectively. Antibiotics are the natural or artificial substances that can check or destroy the growth of harmful bacteria and thereby help in treating bacteria caused infections. Penicillin is probably the oldest and the most popular source of antibiotics.  But do you know?

  1. Alexander Fleming, a bacteriologist from Scotland, observed and reported merits of penicillin in 1928. He reported that Staphylococcus aureus died when came in contact of Penicillium notatum (P. chrysogenum), a green colour mould. This observation is one of the greatest feats of scientific community of the twentieth century.
  2. A decade later Ernst Chain (British), Howard Florey (Australia), and Norman Heatley worked on the observations made by Fleming. These scientists grew, extracted, and purified penicillin to use as a drug.
  3. The scientists faced three major problems while experimenting with penicillin: poor stability of penicillin at high and low pH levels, small level of production, and its fondness for surface culture.
  4. The city of Peoria in Illinois (U.S.A.) was the first place where the Northern Regional Research Laboratory (N.R.R.L.) produced penicillin at large scale.
  5. For penicillin production, locally available substances were used in both countries England and America. Yeast was used in England, whereas corn steep liquor solution was used in the U.S.A.  The liquor solution was more effective. The extract from penicillin moulds grown in the solution was successfully used in treating the World War II soldiers.
  6. The first penicillin-based injectable antibiotic for medicinal use was introduced in 1941.
  7. In 1945, Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, and Howard Walter Florey won Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering penicillin.
  8. Penicillium is a genus consisting of green or blue mould fungi found in asexual forms. The genus grows on fabrics, foodstuff, and leather.
  9. Penicillium is used for making cheeses, organic acid, and antibiotics. Penicillium is widely found in soil.
  10. Penicillin can be divided into two groups: natural and semi-synthetic. The natural penicillin forms during fermentation of the mould. The semi-synthetic penicillin features artificially modified six-aminopenicillanic acid.
  11. Since an antibiotic can be modified, a variety of penicillin is generated for different medicinal uses.
  12. The only natural penicillin that is still available in medical laboratories is Penicillin G. However, poor acid-stability of the penicillin limits its therapeutic use.
  13. The fungi’s conidiophores resemble a paintbrush. Therefore, the Latin word “penicillus,” which means paintbrush, is used to describe the fungi.


sinusitis cure Thirteen Facts about Penicillium

The three most powerful natural antibiotics ever discovered.

Penicillium, the Source of Modern Antibiotics

Thirteen Facts about Penicillium, the Source of Modern Antibiotics

The world antibiotic consists of two Greek words “anti” and “bios” that mean “against” and “life” respectively. Antibiotics are the natural or artificial substances that can check or destroy the growth of harmful bacteria and thereby help in treating bacteria caused infections. Penicillin is probably the oldest and the most popular source of antibiotics. But do you know?

  1. Alexander Fleming, a bacteriologist from Scotland, observed and reported merits of penicillin in 1928. He reported that Staphylococcus aureus died when came in contact of Penicillium notatum (P. chrysogenum), a green colour mould. This observation is one of the greatest feats of scientific community of the twentieth century.
  2. A decade later Ernst Chain (British), Howard Florey (Australia), and Norman Heatley worked on the observations made by Fleming. These scientists grew, extracted, and purified penicillin to use as a drug.
  3. The scientists faced three major problems while experimenting with penicillin: poor stability of penicillin at high and low pH levels, small level of production, and its fondness for surface culture.
  4. The city of Peoria in Illinois (U.S.A.) was the first place where the Northern Regional Research Laboratory (N.R.R.L.) produced penicillin at large scale.
  5. For penicillin production, locally available substances were used in both countries England and America. Yeast was used in England, whereas corn steep liquor solution was used in the U.S.A. The liquor solution was more effective. The extract from penicillin moulds grown in the solution was successfully used in treating the World War II soldiers.
  6. The first penicillin-based injectable antibiotic for medicinal use was introduced in 1941.
  7. In 1945, Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, and Howard Walter Florey won Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering penicillin.
  8. Penicillium is a genus consisting of green or blue mould fungi found in asexual forms. The genus grows on fabrics, foodstuff, and leather.
  9. Penicillium is used for making cheeses, organic acid, and antibiotics. Penicillium is widely found in soil.
  10. Penicillin can be divided into two groups: natural and semi-synthetic. The natural penicillin forms during fermentation of the mould. The semi-synthetic penicillin features artificially modified six-aminopenicillanic acid.
  11. Since an antibiotic can be modified, a variety of penicillin is generated for different medicinal uses.
  12. The only natural penicillin that is still available in medical laboratories is Penicillin G. However, poor acid-stability of the penicillin limits its therapeutic use.
  13. The fungi’s conidiophores resemble a paintbrush. Therefore, the Latin word “penicillus,” which means paintbrush, is used to describe the fungi.


sinusitis cure Penicillium, the Source of Modern Antibiotics

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New management guidelines for acute bacterial sinusitis in children: Part I

New management guidelines for acute bacterial sinusitis in children: Part I

In July 2013, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) updated “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children aged 1-18.” The new guidelines were published in Pediatrics, the academy’s journal. Highlights of the guidelines are summarized in two articles.

Observations made in the new guideline document

  • Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common complication of allergic inflammation or viral upper respiratory infection (URI).

  • Approximately seven percent of young patients getting treatment for respiratory problems have acute sinusitis symptoms.

Why ABS and viral URI are confused with each other?

The membranes lining the sinus cavities, the nose, the middle ear, the oropharynx, and the nasopharynx are continuous. These membranes are called mucosae in medical terminology.
An inflamed nasal mucosa is a main symptom of a viral URI. However, generally the inflammation is also observed in the paranasal sinus and middle ear membranes. Therefore, confusion arises and an imaging scan was recommended earlier for correct diagnosis.

Which clinical observations indicate acute bacterial sinusitis?

According to the new guidelines, a child having an acute infection of the upper respiratory channel suffers from ABS if the following sinusitis symptoms are present:
  1. Persistent illness: persistent nasal discharge, cough during daytime, or both for over ten days without any improvement,
  2. Worsening course: A new beginning or worsening of fever, daytime cough, or nasal discharge after some improvement, or
  3. Severe onset: Purulent nasal discharge and high fever (equal to or more than 102.2 degree Fahrenheit or 39 degree Celsius) for minimum of three consecutive days. Purulent discharge means colored, opaque, and thick discharge.

Do the guidelines recommend imaging of paranasal sinuses to differentiate between a simple viral URI and ABS?

The new guidelines do not recommend the imaging of the sinuses because the images of the young patients suffering from the URI would be abnormal due to overlapping in the findings associated with the two diseases. Especially, imaging is not required in case of uncomplicated ABS.
The recommendation protects children from harmful effects of exposure to radiation, saves money, and prevents false-positive diagnosis.

When to use a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and / or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast scan of the sinuses?

A CT scan is required if the patient also have problems of the central or orbital nervous system. The scan helps in identifying the lesion and the progression, enabling to assess the surgical requirements.


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12 methods to prevent sinusitis

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d411sinusita 150x150 12 methods to prevent sinusitis

Symptoms of sinusitis are:
- Symptoms of colds do not respond to treatment;
- Fever ranging between 38-39 degrees Celsius;
- Headache;
- Tiredness and slimming;
- Toothache;
- Headache localized primarily in the frontal area becomes very sensitive even to a simple touch;
- A chronic cough, especially during night;
- Nasal congestion;
- nasal discharge;
- Bad breath;
- Swelling of the eyelids.
- Sensitive eyes to light;

sinusita 12 methods to prevent sinusitis

Methods to prevent sinusitis:
Treat allergies and colds - nasal inflammation caused by allergies or colds various, predisposing patients to have a strong reaction to all irritants agents.
Attention to the humidity in the house! - Your sinuses drain better when the air is moist. Do not hesitate to use the air conditioner to adjust the temperature in the house.
Uses filters – electrostatic filters sparing allergens agents from the air.
Avoid pollution - exposure in polluted environments can irritate the nasal cavities and aggravates sinusitis.
Quit smoking – Smoking is one of the most common causes for irritation of the sinuses, preventing proper operation of the mucous drainage and causing the appearance of nasal congestion.
Eliminate alcohol consumption - Even occasional use of alcohol cause swelling in the sinus membrane, exposing them to irritations and infections. Of all alcoholic drinks it seems that beer affects the worst sinuses.
Drink a lot of water – water influences the degree of humidity of the body and help prevent nasal congestion.
Avoid swimming – water in pools and swimming pool is often treated with a large amount of chlorine, a substance that irritates the sinuses, especially if you’re a person prone to allergies.
Watch the daily hygiene – bacterial and viral infections are the most common cause of sinusitis production. Make sure you wash your hands frequently with water and soap.
Reduces consumption of dairy products - An excessive consumption of milk cause mucosal thickening and narrowing of the nasal passages, enhancing the occurrence of headaches.
Do not forget the hot showers! – to do as often as possible many a hot shower and inhale the vapors. Doing so you will moisten the neck, allowing the nasal cavity to have adequate drainage.
Beware of extreme temperatures - very low or very high temperatures as well as sudden temperature changes cause severe headache and of teeth.

sinusita+a 12 methods to prevent sinusitis

Eat healthy - try to eat as many fruits and vegetables, avoid very cold drinks, remove from your food program , drinks containing caffeine (coffee, cola, green tea), when you drink your tea try to sweeten it with honey and not forget the lemon slices.


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Treating chronic sinus infection

10 questions about Sinuwave used for treating chronic sinus infection

What is Sinuwave™ Photodisinfection System?

Innovative and easy-to-use , a non-antibiotic treatment, uses antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The system uses photodisinfection principles to treat chronic sinus infection.
The system is designed by the U.S. based Sinuwave Technologies Corporation.

What is aPDT?

aPDT is a brief process consisting of the following steps:
The therapy uses safe laser light to activate a topical photo sensitizer featuring ultra-pure Methylene Blue (MeBlue).
The custom coaxial irrigation catheter irrigates the sensitizer onto the affected paranasal sinus tissues and sticks to the pathogens residing on the membranes (mucosae).
The custom balloon catheter delivers activated light to the sinus membranes without causing any pain.

How does aPDT help?

aPDT plays multiple roles. For example, the therapy
    1. destroys various drug-resistant biofilms occupying the paranasal sinus membranes,
    2. eliminates planktonic viruses, fungi, and bacteria,
    3. removes protease and other local exotoxins,
    4. reduces inflammatory response,
    5. provides instant relief via vasoconstriction of the tissues, and
    6. improves activation of neutrophil.

Does aPDT encourage growth of “photo-resistant” bacteria?

Repeated a PDT does not make bacteria “photo-resistant” probably because the therapy uses a different mechanism than an oral antibiotic therapy to destroy the fungal and bacterial cells. In photodynamic technique, aPDT-induced oxygen radicals and singlet oxygen perforate the cell wall. The perforation damages cells and leads to protein inactivation and membrane lysis.

How are photodisinfection and antibiotics different?

Photodisinfection technique destroys microbes as soon as the light is activated. The non-antibiotic treatment therefore offers fast relief. On the other hand, antibiotics take hours or even days in resolving the symptoms.

Is photodisinfection a proven treatment?

Instant anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of photodisinfection have been confirmed during testing.

How much log reduction in bacteria load did photodisinfection demonstrate during the tests?

Photodisinfection technology showed four-log reduction (99.99%) in bacteria in different systems although two-log reduction (99%) is enough for the chronic sinus infection treatment. Sinuwave would also demonstrate 4-log reduction.

When is used?

The treatment is used for the patients who do not respond to surgical and medical options.
The system reduces the sinusitis leading to formation of polymicrobial biofilms that are resistant to antibiotics. Just one treatment reduces the biofilm formation by 99.9%.

Is e an approved treatment?

Canada has approved Sinuwave. Clinical trials are in progress at the Canadian University of Montreal.

What are the benefits?

    1. Sinuwave would reduce the pain and pathogens such as fungi, viruses, and bacteria that are resistant to antibiotic.
    2. The treatment would not require patient compliance.
    3. Sinuwave would not lead to drug interactions.


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Top 3 Antibiotics that Doctors Prescribe for Sinusitis

sinusitis 250x250 Top 3 Antibiotics that Doctors Prescribe for Sinusitis

1) Amoxicillin / Augmentin

When you go to the doctors with a severe bout of sinusitis, one of the commonest medicines that doctors would probably give you is an antibiotic. The commonest ones include amoxicillin or augmentin (Co-amoxiclav), which are both penicillin based antibiotics. These are used to treat underlying bacterial infections, which are usually associated with sinus infections. Amoxicillin is a popular choice amongst family doctors because it is effective in a lot of cases and has few side effects. However, it should not be used in people who are penicillin allergic. Co-amoxiclav is a similar preparation, which consists of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The latter compound reduces resistance from bacteria and aids the synergistic effect of the antibiotic.

Common side effects: nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea and oral irritation.

2) Azithromycin

In people who have allergies to penicillin, then amoxicillin cannot be used and other antibiotics are tried. Azithromycin is a popular alternative and works in a slightly different mechanism to penicillin based antibiotics. It belongs to another family of antibiotics called macrolides, which include other antibiotics such as clarithromycin or erythromycin.

Common side effects: abdominal pains, nausea and dizziness

3) Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins are antibiotics that belong to the penicllin family. They include drugs such as cefuroxime and cefpodoxime. They can be equally as effective as other penicillin antibiotics in the treatment of acute sinusitis. They can be used in all age groups including young children.

Common side effects: diarrhoea, flu like symptoms and palpitations.

sinusitis cure Top 3 Antibiotics that Doctors Prescribe for Sinusitis

On a side note I used to suffer badly from sinusitis when I was young. I had excruciating attacks and had multiple courses of different antibiotics: doxycycline, amoxicillin. You name it – I most likely had it. If there is one thing I would have liked to try it is herbal remedies. They contain natural substances that not only helped body healing but also boost the immune system. Find out about the three most powerful natural antibiotics ever discovered.